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Gandharvikā is a name for Rādhā that indicates her expertise in music, in this painting she is with her “stringed instrument known as a kacchapī-vīṇā, which is the fame and fortune that actually dries up the faces and breasts of the other gopīs.” (Caitanya caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.166 purport). Kṛṣṇa is often called Giridhārī, or the lifter of Govardhana Hill, so this painting shows the divine couple at Govardhana. What follows are some references which inspired this painting.
Padyāvalī 191: “Rādhā taught her caged parrot to recite the words of your [Kṛṣṇa’s] letter. She turned Your letter into a song she sings to the accompaniment of flute and vīṇā.” — Śrī Govardhanācārya.
Gītā Mālā 6 by Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura: “Oh Rādhe! You are wildly exciting Kṛṣṇa’s mind with your fragrant bodily aroma and the sweet sound of your vīṇā.”
Dāna-keli-kaumudī of Rūpa Gosvāmī: “Kṛṣṇa says, ‘Who is this girl? Standing by Govardhana Hill, moving the bows of her eyebrows, and shooting arrows of sidelong glances past her glistening jewel earrings, she wounds and bewilders me. Aha! Can this be my beloved, the dove who makes her nest in my heart? Now I have found my Rādhā, who is graceful, artistic, and passionately in love with me, whose graceful words decorate my ear, and who is like a vīṇā that makes graceful sweet sounds with ornaments of many notes and quarter-notes in the different ragas.’”
Kṛṣṇa-bhāvanāmṛta-mahākāvya by Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura, chapter 19: “Rādhika began to play her vallakī vīṇā, holding it in her lotus-like hands as Kṛṣṇa held his haṁsīka flute in his lotus-like hands. It was as if they wanted to defeat each other in expertise in singing and playing music! Their music turned water into stone and stone into water. That’s quite normal, but even the hearts of the munis in Satyaloka, who were absorbed in non-dual vision, melted and poured down on earth. That was most amazing!” And in chapter 12: “Kṛṣṇa said, ‘Rādhā, it is your vīṇā who defeated my muralī out of envy through all her artistry, who makes me happy with her sweetness and who has an ample breast (the gourd of the vīṇā) like yours!’”